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< Linux > Command Line Interface Page
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< Linux > Command Line Interface
[Main category] [Sub category] [code] or [command] or [action] [explanation]


(most likely "bash")

< Terminal emulator > Applications > Accessories > Terminal (most likely "xterm")

- Runs in a window in the GUI

- You can use the Mouse to select text or scroll

- Copy = "Ctrl+Shift+C"

- Paste = "Ctrl+Shift+P"

< Virtual Terminal > Ctrl+Alt+F1 "F1 - F6" open "tty1 - tty6" (tty= teletypewriter)

Linux usually has six virtual terminals

No Mouse, No window, No GUI

The seventh (F7 & tty7) one is where "X"

the GUI (graphical user interface) is running

Ctrl+Alt+F7 to get back to the GUI
name@computer:~$ normal user

name@computer:~# loged in as Root

/ the root directery

man interface to the terminal command reference manuals

("man ls" returns the manual for how to use "list")

sudo execute a command as another user (likely Root)

or When higher privileges are needed

you will be prompted to type your password,

you will not see any characters when typing, not even dots

This is perfectly normal and your password is typing just fine

&& after something && then do the next thing

grep print lines matching a pattern

Navigation: cd Change directories

cd /home/name/subfolder navigate to folder: home/name/subfolder

cd .. go up 1 level

pwd "Print working directory" - show what dir you're in.

ls List the contents of a dir.

Files: mkdir 123 Make a directory named 123 in the current directory

rm Remove a file.

mv Move or rename a file.

cp Copy a file.

chmod change file access permissions

chown change file owner and group

mount mount a file system
uname -a print system information

lsb_release -a print distribution-specific information

sudo apt-get update APT package handling utility

reboot reboot your system

shutdown now -h shutdown your system

free Display amount of free and used memory in the system

top display Linux tasks
Hardware: General: lshw detailed list of hardware on your computer

lspci list all PCI devices

lsusb list USB devices

Disks: hdparm get/set SATA/IDE device parameters

sudo hdparm -Tt /dev/sda -t perform device read timings

-T perform cache read timings

-i display drive identification

-I detailed/current information directly from drive

sudo fdisk -l Partition table manipulator

df -h disk free (remaining / used disk space)

NetWork: ifconfig see your current ip address

ping send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts

ping -c 5 Do you have a conection to the router ?

ping -c 5 www.baidu.com can you get out to the www ?

route -n show / manipulate the IP routing table

netstat -rn network connections, routing tables, multicast, etc

lspci | grep Wireless find out what wireless card you have or use

wget -r -l -k -p -np <some URL> The non-interactive network downloader

< Linux > Command Line Interface

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