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< Linux > Command Line Interface Page
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< Linux > Command Line Interface
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[Main category] [Sub category] [code] or [command] or [action] [explanation]




<Shell>

(most likely "bash")

< Terminal emulator > Applications > Accessories > Terminal (most likely "xterm")



- Runs in a window in the GUI



- You can use the Mouse to select text or scroll



- Copy = "Ctrl+Shift+C"



- Paste = "Ctrl+Shift+P"

< Virtual Terminal > Ctrl+Alt+F1 "F1 - F6" open "tty1 - tty6" (tty= teletypewriter)



Linux usually has six virtual terminals



No Mouse, No window, No GUI



The seventh (F7 & tty7) one is where "X"



the GUI (graphical user interface) is running


Ctrl+Alt+F7 to get back to the GUI
General:
name@computer:~$ normal user


name@computer:~# loged in as Root


/ the root directery


man interface to the terminal command reference manuals



("man ls" returns the manual for how to use "list")


sudo execute a command as another user (likely Root)



or When higher privileges are needed



you will be prompted to type your password,



you will not see any characters when typing, not even dots



This is perfectly normal and your password is typing just fine


&& after something && then do the next thing


grep print lines matching a pattern

Navigation: cd Change directories


cd /home/name/subfolder navigate to folder: home/name/subfolder


cd .. go up 1 level


pwd "Print working directory" - show what dir you're in.


ls List the contents of a dir.

Files: mkdir 123 Make a directory named 123 in the current directory


rm Remove a file.


mv Move or rename a file.


cp Copy a file.


chmod change file access permissions


chown change file owner and group


mount mount a file system
System:
uname -a print system information


lsb_release -a print distribution-specific information


sudo apt-get update APT package handling utility


reboot reboot your system


shutdown now -h shutdown your system


free Display amount of free and used memory in the system


top display Linux tasks
Hardware: General: lshw detailed list of hardware on your computer


lspci list all PCI devices


lsusb list USB devices

Disks: hdparm get/set SATA/IDE device parameters


sudo hdparm -Tt /dev/sda -t perform device read timings



-T perform cache read timings



-i display drive identification



-I detailed/current information directly from drive


sudo fdisk -l Partition table manipulator


df -h disk free (remaining / used disk space)

NetWork: ifconfig see your current ip address


ping send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts


ping -c 5 192.168.1.1 Do you have a conection to the router ?


ping -c 5 www.baidu.com can you get out to the www ?


route -n show / manipulate the IP routing table


netstat -rn network connections, routing tables, multicast, etc


lspci | grep Wireless find out what wireless card you have or use


wget -r -l -k -p -np <some URL> The non-interactive network downloader

< Linux > Command Line Interface

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